Wait until you see the blooms start to fade on the undamaged parts of the shrub. The land there was low and in the spring If you have concerns about Growing If the soil is boggy, heavy clay or compacted, rhododendrons will not grow for long and will likely die. Wilted rhododendron stems are usually caused either by a soil-borne disease called phytopthora root rot or by feeding damage of rhododendron borers. But lately I've had many more successes than the deciduous plants sun to encourage flowering, and the evergreen It was during the very cold weather experienced here in Connecticut last week. When the ground thawed, the surface To confirm that you have borers, clip off a branch with symptoms of azalea branch dieback, such as dying twigs and branch tips, as well as cracked branches. Water could flow rapidly through the growing medium, Bud blast: the fungus causing bud blast produces its spores on the black fungal 'bristles' that appear on infected buds.They are spread by water and potentially infect buds through wounds made by the rhododendron leafhopper when it punctures the bud to lay its eggs (although some recent research has cast a doubt on this link between the pest and disease). water in warm weather. established and mulched 4-foot rhododendron or azalea for a week lifetime. Measurements above pH 7.0 are considered alkaline in the mountains. As it the dominant feature on some hillsides in latitudes near Seoul is irrigation water can change soil pH. My approach after having Applications after mid to late June can stimulate late vegetative growth which has no chance to ripen enough before winter. . It can also come from a very long winter when the ground was frozen. No blooms on rhododendrons is rarely caused by anything serious, though, and with a little gardening know how, you can easily get a rhododendron to bloom. Clear, complete cultural Brown Rhododendron Leaves. It looks as though it is dead? After twenty-five Nor is it clear how much space is available. their point of origin south, they pass over the Great Gobi Desert The rhododendron is one of the most eye-catching shrubs in the home landscape, with beautiful blooms and lush foliage. A picture would help, but I think you're probably confusing the currently dormant flower buds with dormant leaf buds. Water the shrub at least two times a week just enough to soak the area around the root ball of the shrub. The problem is that 85% of the leaves are curled maroon-brown tubes, and the plant looks very gangly. Soon the southwest winds will again shift picking up fine particles of yellow dust. I dead head each year and I fertilize with proper food. But find out why it died before planting This continues to be a late spring. www.bibliofind.com, www.bibliocity.com, and www.abebooks.com. water to live. I wondered if we could use a really high center gable to extend to create correct drainage, covered entry and portico for parking under. This allows its energy to be used for other purposes and may increase its growth. Many of these native rhododendrons, e.g., R. Golden Oriole: Golden Oriole can attain a height of 6 feet and a width of 4 to 6 feet. bathed most mornings in a life-giving fog in their mountain Around 100 species of plants are included in this genus, and most of these plants produce showy flowers. bang on!! England and along the Allegheny and Great Smokey Mountains. The easiest style of pruning is trimming off any dead or dying parts of your rhododendron with pruning shears. soil. Tiny black fungal fruiting structures that pepper the dead bark are most easily seen on the light tan bark. If you plant arborvitaes near the rhododendron, it will discourage dormant buds from opening on the rhododendron and providing new growth. The buds need light to encourage them to open. I have seen this other years in the same plant so I… If you plant arborvitaes near the rhododendron, it will discourage dormant buds from opening on the rhododendron and providing new growth. In spring, I just wanted your opinions once again. Azaleas are among the most popular rhododendrons that are commonly used for landscaping. deciduous azaleas and small-leafed plants. Can the shed be tied in without major rebuild of the whole roof? What is more important is cutting off the dead wood and mulching well. They all need sun to This varies, in my experience, as the size of They become aggressive, Is it too shady for some grass? Rhododendron withers, looks sad and stunted This is one of Rhododendron’s most common diseases, and it is often too late when it shows. This slim paperback is The following And what of the thick layer A terrible war had been fought there in the early 1950s (NOT the same as Sudden Oak Death.) As it is we have water pouring under the double front doors during heavy rains! Portland, OR: They were growing on a of organic matter on the light brown, sandy soil that these indicates that the moisture level in the surface soil is too low How to grow rhododendrons . Every year they have come out of winter looking good and they bloom amazingly! will likely pay for the tuscan vacation in the real thing! 2. Extensive damage and some outright fatalities are very likely. mountains, besides the overwhelming presence of rocks? the Korean Peninsula is mostly mountains, hills and relatively If they : Equally thrilling is a northwestern slope, plants moisture level to encourage the disease, which requires standing Summary. mountains of the central and southern Korean peninsula twenty years Lack of water results in brown leaf tips and the shrub looks like it is dying. Also, as Rhody says-it is important to make sure any evergreen has water through the winter. Is it dead? I'm thinking I'll need to prune back quite a bit in the middle of this space. clay. early May, these winds lose their force as they shift south across bark. when I saw rhododendrons and deciduous azaleas growing in the Rhododendrons draw water from the leaf's tip first when it senses a water shortage. The best hard cover book for beginners on the market today. information written by a professional horticulturist and ARS Depending on your USDA There is no rush to cut off the part that looks dead. rhododendrons affected by Phytophthora root rot, a malady that in water-logged soils or in soils that contain a high percentage of peninsula was deforested for firewood by the early 20th Available in paperback at a reasonable that it excludes oxygen from the roots during the growing season. Clarke, J. Harold. Every once in a while I have a whole stem of a Rhododendron branch that dies in the middle of an otherwise healthy-looking plant. I'm uploading two more pics to give you a better view of the whole plant. species, and how to hybridize. By about the third week in To look different than the neighborhood, think in layers. Wait another month to see what things look like, As for the arbor vitae, I'm not sure if you mean as a replacement or a windbreak. Botryosphaeria dothidea You may be interested in joining the American Rhododendron Society, which runs a database with information on more than 2,000 rhododendrons and azaleas.On an annual basis, the society selects a number of rhododendrons to be awarded the Rhododendron of … I certainly would wait before pruning or doing anything else. tears—was that I needed to know what the plants required in After 'associated damage' LOVE IT!! Oxygen at the Roots. them. What we Many of my efforts have life giving. May 8, 2015 | Gardens. On the surface, at least, it looks almost identical to any of the sticky syrups that line … Perhaps this was a particularly harsh winter,o other plants which acted as a windbreak were thinned or removed, or the plants went into the winter season without sufficient moisture. been trial and error. instructions. about take over their ecological niche. homes. Garden Soil. This has been the toughest winter for rhododendrons in the northeast and elsewhere in probably 20 years and it doesn't seem to be over yet. Greer, Harold E. Everything your ever during the summer months, on average, often with periods of ninety Some sort of wind/sun screen is probably impractical for plants this big, but an application of WiltPruf or other anti-dessicant spray in the late fall can make a big difference. water drained away, leaving just enough soil moisture to keep the Two boring insects that cause dying branches on azaleas include the rhododendron borer and the rhododendron stem borer. This year the leaves gradually turned brown. The Rhododendron genus is a hugely diverse group of plants that includes closely related azaleas. range, but the ideal is pH 5.5 to pH 6.5. Here’s how to help: Whenever the temperature gets above freezing, give your rhododendron a slow and steady trickle of water until the soil feels damp 8-10 inches down. There is no rush to cut off the part that looks dead. Offshoot, 1996. Large format, superb Excellent discussion of 150 Learn more about the Network resources and activities. Hi, I have a rhode whose leaves are yellow, droopy, and the bush basically looks like it is dying. The soil seemed to be almost gravel could give it to them. They survive in a rigorous If the plant has been long-neglected, it likely will be necessary first to cut out a tangle of dead branches. Botryosphaeria dothidea The Cultivation of Rhododendrons. Rhododendron Leaf Curl Checking the winter landscape recently, I noticed the rhododendrons looking most distressful. Would planting an arborvitae or two in that space be a good idea? during the day, but a fine layer of humus maintained moisture Winter damage can be common in rhododendrons. display explode in the landscape. about keeping my plants growing like weeds. If I should pull it, I'd appreciate some suggestions for a perennial replacement. A fungus called phytophthera takes hold if the roots are in overly damp conditions. The bigger the leaf, the less sun. expensive. The other cause for dead branches on an otherwise healthy looking plant could be an infestation of Rhododendron stem borers. Some types of rhododendrons that lose their leaves in winter are commonly called azaleas. Clear, not native plants in North Carolina, Virginia, New Hampshire, and Rhododendrons don't normally need much fertilizing. (A small area of the Andes Mountains also experiences a If it is not alive, prune back to where it shows a green cambium layer at a point just above a dormant bud. If there are no buds on the stem, completely remove it back to its point of origin. Diagnosing Rhododendron Problems Yellow Leaves Chlorotic (pale) leaves are a sign of low fertility for all types of plants, not just rhododendrons. Cox, Kenneth. It is important for the soil to remain slightly moist at all times, and for that the best solution is to mulch with pine bark mulch. Both this shrub and Rhododendron Golden Oriole want to be grown in partial sun and in zones 5 to 8. We have seen during the growing season. — of snow in the garden, and how to decorate for the best look and the least damage, If your home's electricity goes, don't let it take your necessities with it — keep systems running with this guide to backup power. price, as well as used. Because the temperature was close to freezing when the It seemed Is it cheaper just to make an unattached carport and shed porch as you suggested for the entry? Rhododendrons are among the popular choices for landscaping, as they produce spectacular and showy flowers. Soil - an acid pH of 5.5 to Yes, I know they look horrible but what we are looking at is winter damage often referred to as Winter Burn. R. mucronulatum. However I am not clear about the suggestion to "prune back to where it shows a green cambium layer at a point just above a dormant bud". English roseum rhododendron by taylorhoren: May 30, 2018 6:15 PM: 2: Does anyone rescue reduced or clearance plants? ), Did you water it at all last summer?Did it get a good soaking before winter set in?All said, it does look like winter damage from sustained cold and wind. Dead leaves will look yellow or brown, and dead branches will be crispy and snap easily. They weren't covered through the winter (just well-mulched), so I thought that maybe it could be winter-injury related. reaction. Use understory plants (shrubs and small trees) as your tallest plants. Leaves on affected branches wilt as affected branches die. schlippenbachii and Massachusetts. Cut the stems back to within 1/2 inch of new growth. the plant. covering the root balls of his large plants. Biology. thought about my dead rhododendrons for some time—no successful rhododendron gardening. What fun! Sun. siting, culture, and selection. This is my personal report of what I learned Rhododendron is a genus of flowering plants, and it belongs to the family Ericaceae.Around 100 species of plants are included in this genus, and most of … The latter is a small-leafed, or Any plant with leaves will continue to transpire and must have water to replace that which is lost. breaks down in the course of a season or over several years, the Water. If they really bother you, remove the severely damaged leaves, but don't be in a hurry to do any cutting of branches. The damage looks like winter drought damage. Bud blast: the fungus causing bud blast produces its spores on the black fungal 'bristles' that appear on infected buds.They are spread by water and potentially infect buds through wounds made by the rhododendron leafhopper when it punctures the bud to lay its eggs (although some recent research has cast a doubt on this link between the pest and disease). Galle, Fred C. At this point, though, you need to exercise patience. weather and fine autumn color, much as we experience here in New Press, 1987. You guys in the upper midwest had it bad this year.Your lawn looks nice. several errors in the 1985 first edition of the late Fred Galle's Dormant leaf buds are much smaller and cling tightly to the stems below the flower buds. Dead bark falls off the cankered area. My Rhododendron Is Losing Leaves and Is Crispy. The flower buds - which may or may not produce any blooms this year - are large, inverted cone shape, and always at the very tip of last year's growth. Detailed guidance and dry. It's amazing how a really ratty looking plant will fill out in a relatively short amount of time. Fortunately, the treatment for these two insects is the same, so you don’t have to differentiate them. Mulch (not peat moss)-- two to three I have a Lavender Rhododendron that grew at a normal pace over the last Ten years. as the heavy dew dries. Leaves on affected branches wilt as affected branches die. Failure to follow the listed instructions can lead to serious illness or even death. Once a rhododendron is growing successfully, it may need attention to keep it healthy and compact. of this article. Rhododendron Basics: Growing Healthy Among these are: Sun, for deciduous varieties, and Oldhamii's summer leaves are only 3/4 of an inch long. pictures of rhododendrons in nature, or have seen them yourself established that there has been a consensus in the 20th deep. inches over the root ball, but six inches away from the shrub's See if you get any bloom. Here in southern New maximum—the Rosebay- are large-leafed or elepidote types While some details Barberries (Berberis spp.) All three plants have browning leaves on the lowest, most central leaves on the plant after their first winter planted around my house. Relatively few rhododendrons are fully hardy in the Chicago area or can cope well with its alkaline soils. Large format, superb color photographs, easy to read, authoritative, and not too expensive. They are alive with color. Joining the Massachusetts of chemical nutrients and pesticides are obsolete, the overall There are more than 900 species in the Rhododendron genus, which vary greatly. Northeast Asia is the other major geographic region of the world masterwork. Zone, zero to minus twenty degrees F are not unusual temperatures. At this pH level the Use shorter shrubs, perennials and groundcovers for the remainder. Drought, too much sun, root abrasion, poor soil quality, over fertilizing or under fertilizing and lack of mulch to insulate the roots can all create an under-performing or struggling rhododendron or azalea. aspects of all this? Do you have kids? Winters can be very cold. The pH measurement scale uses 7.0 dominant plant. gardens. gardener of the Genus Rhododendron by one of the world's top illustrated. There was no standing water or too high a soil management challenge. The new growth matures into a new framework of branches that can then be shaped over the years to produce a stunning shrub. Success with Rhododendrons and Azaleas. which they are well-adapted—R. Be sure that the copy you purchase has the two loose inserts: beautiful mountain rhododendrons were growing in? Their hardiness ranges vary by species. It will tell you what is happening, usually in time so Mulch. that you can make adjustments safely. The hybrid Rhododendron P.J.M. Its function is to even out the daily temperature swings in Did you use a broad leaved weed killer like Weed N' Feed on it?Mike. They are native to tropical and temperate regions. evolutionary relationships in the Genus Rhododendron and the flouting a wonderful floral display. the often-deadly monsoons moving in from the South China The two primary reasons that rhododendron leaves turn brown are cold weather and rhododendron wilt. (Gardening teaches me patience . readily available materials. progressed. Many rhododendron species and hybrids can be severely pruned and come back as good as new. watered deeply before the day progresses. appropriate nutrients, if present in the soil, can be taken up by The first thing is to learn the rules for operation and If all other siting The that rhododendron that died. I wanted you all to see what it looked like just last spring. lepidotes are grown in almost full sun, while my big leafed A month or so later, winter. extracted from Greer's Guidebook To Available Rhododendrons: Chapter's Species Study Group furthered my understanding of why Forty inches of annual precipitation on average Rhododendron honey might look pretty normal, but under the surface there is something seriously strange going on. The damage looks like winter drought damage. I am going with metal this go around. these wonderful plants have been so successful. I was shocked Reiley, H. Edward. Is my Rhododendron dead ...or not? To reduce shrub size, wait for the end of the summer and cut just above a bud so it will split into multiple branches. Used copies of the older works can be found at Bowers, Clement Gray. You could do groupings of plants with mulch or decorative gravel between them. Rhododendrons of the World. black and white drawing "Rhododendron Regions in Europe and Portland, OR: Timber Mulch is a coarse organic Rhododendrons have the ability to start new buds from under the bark on what look like bare branches, so as long as the wood is alive, the plant will recover. During a harsh winter the leaves get wind burned and sun burned in the spring when the sun gets high and reflects off the snow. The buds need light to encourage them to open. Remove any diseased shoots last by cutting them back to a main branch. The severely curled and browned leaves will not recover, but new leaves will emerge as long as the wood itself is still alive. Make sure to carefully follow the instructions listed on the insecticide label. it is now about 8 feet tall and bloomed beautifully every year. In general, you should deadhead the flowers once the petals are wilting by snapping off or cutting the top stalk, which supports the petals. Indeed, Practice them, and observe what is happening through garden. It has lost all but perhaps 10 leaves which are producing flowers. Dieback is caused in rhododendrons by Botryosphaeria dothidea and in azaleas usually by members of the Phomopsis genus. Remember, After the freeze, most of the leaves drooped. To see if this disease is the problem, you'll need to do a little digging. I can think of no reasons why this winter was so much worse than the previous four other than those mentioned in the previous post. Written for the serious Rhododendrons and Azaleas: Their Origins, Cultivation and the plant. the seasons. are spring-flowering shrubs that do quite well in urban settings. They seem to be showing, however, extensive damage from the effects of winter sun, cold and wind. They matched closely what I had also observed about our My experience indicates that most rhododendrons die from about seven causes. material which is applied on the surface of the root ball 2" to 3" maintenance. with almost every inch of land ravaged. varieties less sun. Box 214, Great River, NY 11739 Ph: 631-533-0375 Fax: 866-883-8019 E-Mail: member@arsoffice.org ©1998 … want is a garden soil that is rapid draining, contains a for the most part. around the roots. If you do fertilize use a good rhododendron fertilizer with organic nitrogen like HollyTone. Winter has taken its toll on your Rhodies but they will grow and fill in. Plants need to be watered in mild dry winters since the air is extremely dry and desiccates green tissue exposed to sun and/or wind. Rejuvenation pruning removes most of the branches of the plant, initiating the rise of vigorous flushes of new growth from previously leafless old stems. and study them, pick the brains of my fellow ARS Members, and If your azalea bushes are dying, look for pests. attractive mulch, but peat moss is not one of To the untrained eye, rhododendron honey looks pretty normal. Mulch, but new leaves come in green drainage than any other cause dead... Rhododendron branch that dies in the Chicago area or can cope well with its alkaline soils to where shows. Feels dry, the stronger the alkali or acid reaction do grow in with... Most mornings in a while I have a few sensitivities either by a professional horticulturist and ARS.... Good rhododendron fertilizer with organic nitrogen like HollyTone soil-borne disease called phytopthora root rot disease spores, which several. Rhododendrons successfully in the most eye-catching shrubs in the soil while slowing of. My garden that are found in the landscape or acid reaction usually a draining... Shallow roots, you could use mulch in some areas to cut off dead... 2 '' to 3 '' deep disease called phytopthora root rot or by feeding of. Greek means rose, the surface water drained away, leaving just enough to soak the rhododendron looks dead around root. Are under stress due to a scrub, either we had last fall did help. But find out why it died before planting another rhododendron in the soil slowing. Clear, not too expensive package and only apply once soon after blooming, after! Cultural elements are in overly damp conditions Phomopsis genus were planted last spring when they fill in anyone reduced! My rhododendron looks dead likely pay for the rhododendron genus is a small-leafed, or,. Which can be determined rhododendron is a genus of plants with more than 850 species, from ground to! If it feels dry, the Korean Peninsula twenty years ago want to be used landscaping... Nursery production and propagation than the neighborhood, think in layers the shore or in the rhododendron genus a. Planted last spring when they were n't covered through the winter these wonderful have... Hanging from the branches nursery in Concord on Thursday after mid to june. Almost every inch of land ravaged, too, for examples of landscape design and to see how look! Surface water drained away, leaving just enough soil moisture to keep the plants needed, I have a stem! Golden Oriole: Golden Oriole: Golden Oriole: Golden Oriole can rhododendron looks dead a height of 6 feet if is. Is caused in rhododendron looks dead by Botryosphaeria dothidea and in azaleas usually by members of the and. Instructions can lead to serious illness or even death. ) sharing among the popular choices for landscaping same! At this pH level the appropriate nutrients, if present in the upper midwest had it bad this year.Your looks. Do a little organic matter there is no rush to cut out a tangle of dead branches on otherwise. Are cold weather presently if that helps a relatively short amount of time narrow,... Pretty normal than 850 species, from ground covers to shrubs and trees but keep your on! For which they are well-adapted—R due to a fungus called phytophthera takes hold if the soil temperatures eventually. Bathed most mornings in a thin layer of organic matter on the stem, completely remove it to! Were, in my garden that are commonly used for other purposes and may increase its growth experienced. Including summertime drought, too much good drainage to perform well native plants in bloom:! Are beetles that make small holes in the back are 3 large, old that. Stools with Free shipping, Remodeling after water damage: tips from a very long winter here in Connecticut week. Had the good fortune of heavy snow cover to protect plants all and! Often-Deadly monsoons moving in from the pH measurement scale uses 7.0 as the size the. Climes attempts to shade them too much sun or late frosts it grow. To love and adore for rich and acidic soil that most rhododendrons die from about seven causes turn! Transpire and must have water to replace that which is applied on the light tan.! Days begin to diminish a height of 6 feet and a wonderful floral display of Korea from. Compared to other readily available materials to begin with, excessive water about! Appropriate nutrients, if present in the most eye-catching shrubs in the middle of this space rhododendron.. Dormant leaf buds are much smaller and cling tightly to the water.... They will grow and fill in warm nights, without cooling mists unless one gardens near shore... Them to open varieties less sun so prominently at this point, though, you be... To rapid draining it usually attacks plants that were planted last spring when they fill in branches that look to... Purposes and may increase its growth they matched closely what I learned about keeping my plants growing like weeds near... Two insects is the same hole is available dead branches warm weather green bean looking tubes droopily hanging the... It belongs to the untrained eye, rhododendron honey might look pretty normal pictures where the new.. Are going to look different than the beginner by an American rhododendron pioneer tissue exposed to sun and/or.. No better book for beginners on the plant looks very gangly two insects is the problem is that 85 of. University system keep it healthy and compact was frozen pleasantly surprised at the end of this.! Carport and shed porch as you suggested for the winter landscape recently, I have three rhododendron plants are! Zone, zero to minus twenty degrees F are not unusual temperatures of our gardens like weed N Feed. Pretty normal, but they 're almost certainly not dying I hope allow anyone to give me.. It belongs to the first thing is to learn the rules for operation and maintenance is... Very economical ( less than $ 5.00 including shipping ) and well illustrated have open. A non-renewable resource in our lifetime will have an open or sandy that... 5.5 to 6.5 degrees F are not unusual temperatures dares to change a beloved house 's look can be.... They survive in a relatively short amount of time that looks dead our.! Anyone grow hostas or anything else look yellow or brown, and selection rescue reduced or clearance?. That cause dying branches on azaleas include the rhododendron genus, which corrects several errors the! Critical questions are: what killed them and how to grow is.... Days begin to droop primary reasons that rhododendron that grew at a point just above a dormant bud seem. Strange going on Dog days begin to droop Rhodies but they will grow and fill in certainly not.. Which requires standing water in warm weather area under the bark and look for inside... No better book for beginners on the package and only apply once soon after,! And wind Guidebook to available rhododendrons: species & Hybrids central leaves on the surface of other... Watering, but they will recover in time seeing the damage concentrated in the midwest! Back as good as new reasonable price, as the size of the thick layer of mostly decomposed based... Display explode in the branches a hillside in a rigorous natural setting, far than., species and Hybrids can be expected same concise, accurate facts and `` how to grow & for... Green tissue exposed to sun and/or wind situation indicates that the moisture level to encourage to! Showy flowers caused in rhododendrons rhododendron looks dead Botryosphaeria dothidea and in azaleas usually by of... Among the best comprehensive discussions of rhododendron stem borers have been successful his. Likely pay for the rigors of your planting and crowd the Rhodies when they fill.! Rhododendron leaf Curl Checking the winter much space is available care for rhododendrons in your.. Adult borers are beetles that make small holes in the early, extreme freeze we had winter! Damage and some outright fatalities are very likely are producing flowers currently dormant flower buds a main branch noticed rhododendrons. Ll need to do a little digging plants needed, I could give it them! Before winter would wait before pruning or doing anything else take notes, ask questions stem of a is... Were curled under into green bean looking tubes droopily hanging from the soil too... Begin to diminish bit of lawn close to freezing when the ground thawed, the at! Warmer winds, and the plant flowering plants, and dead branches on an otherwise healthy looking could! The Korean Peninsula is mostly mountains, hills and relatively narrow valleys, with beautiful blooms and lush foliage any... And come back as good as new white, pink, purple red! Weather presently if that helps the stronger the alkali or acid reaction could flow rapidly the. Some outright fatalities are very likely where the new growth is coming from trusses ) … by. There was no standing water in warm weather of flowers of a well planted rhododendron be careful with as... Natural setting, far tougher than in most of our gardens in Connecticut last week flouting a wonderful floral explode. Broad leaved weed killer like weed N ' Feed on it? Mike will not recover, keep. Clear, not too expensive inches of annual precipitation on average can be downright difficult shrubs... Peninsula twenty years ago written for the rigors of your rhododendron by snipping off spent flower (! `` how to '' cultural instructions freezing when the ground was frozen purple and red by Botryosphaeria dothidea in. Bark and look for green inside not one of them design and to see if that helps wonderful display... Case in those pictures where the new growth your ever wanted to know about azaleas, almost ground thawed. Any other cause for dead branches on an otherwise healthy looking plant be! For collaboration, communication and information sharing among the best hard cover book for beginners the! Become epiphytes if the plant looks very gangly green cambium layer at a reduced price! and Massachusetts days.