Four items were used to measure perceived benefits of taking action by the respondents. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Definition and Rationale for the Health Belief Model, including: 1. The respondents reported their belief of severity of their diabetes by rating how serious their diabetes will have bad effect on their future health (for instance, “my diabetes will cause me to be sick a lot”). They are found around the triangle formed by the confluence of River Niger and River Benue and are located east of the confluence. However, metabolic control was not included, as it requires blood samples which were not performed in this study. Similarly, only four components of the earlier version of HBM were used to measure health beliefs in this study, hence the need to expand the study and include the added components of the revised model. Type 2 is a preventable type of diabetes through diet and exercise. . The means of these ratings served as measures of perceived severity (M = 13.38, SD = 2.07). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 152 respondents living with diabetes. These were used to measure the diabetes knowledge and beliefs about diabetes from those with the condition. þB©n.TÆ/œSBÙåõãé¥"UUQï±Y3mëçV8qNdîô|3íhÿm7;OÁšðhÏÓ­ˆÎíóC»yETˆA+Òp&áWx¯º!R{/ïÐÍËhÛ©3Ñ­)ÊÂ}缞~6kð©áÏ»)"š†:¸†P©CAÓ¼ÅB$Õ,äE))/5'`Ê´ƒÀ›šÎ¬k{³ãWt¡øõ˜”f¤Ê¿ž¥t3ë}¡°1PQUCõŠT. The second variable, severity, is the perception of diabetes as a serious illness, ranging from perceiving complications, such as blindness, to viewing diabetes as a life-threatening disease. The health belief model (HBM)) is a social psychological health behavior change model developed to explain and predict health-related behaviors, particularly in regard to the uptake of health services. However, it is hoped that the findings from this study will stimulate further studies on diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and diabetes management in Nigeria, with particular focus on cultural beliefs in relation to diabetes health beliefs. Table 2. Diabetes Care 1980 Sep; 3 … Table 3 reveals that 30 respondents, representing about 41% of those with low level of diabetes knowledge, had good diabetes management, whereas 50 respondents, representing about 64% of those with high level of diabetes knowledge, had good diabetes management status. The HBM states that an individual’s behavior can be predicted based on certain issues that the individual may consider (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) when making a decision about a particular behavior concerning his or her health (Glanz, Lewis, & Rimer, 1990). View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. The Health Belief Model Of People With Type 2 Diabetes 789 Words4 Pages Boskey (2014) concludes that a person’s willingness to change their health behaviors includes perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and cues to action and self-efficacy. Table 4 above reveals the relative influence of diabetes knowledge on the management of diabetes. Sharing links are not available for this article. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala in Kogi State, Nigeria. Objective While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is growing, it is increasingly well recognized that treatment outcomes in primary care practice are often suboptimal. The Health Belief Model and Self-Care Behaviors amo ng Type 2 Diabetic Patients Hossein Vazini 1, Majid Barati 2* Introduction D iabetes is the most common important metabolic disease. This enabled ranking as high or low, good or poor. The study only took a convenient sample from one ethnic group in an ethnically diverse region. ’Çô ! Baumann, Opio, Otim, Olson, and Ellison (2010) found that few patients did home glucose monitoring, considered activities of daily living as regular exercise, and lack healthy food choices. A convenient sample of 152 men and women living with diabetes who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in this study constituted the participants for the study. The respondents were approached as they came in to see their doctors or to have a blood glucose test. Table 5. World Health Organization (2004) estimated that there were 1.71 million people living with diabetes in Nigeria and the figure was projected to reach 4.94 million by the year 2030. The instruments were in-depth interview guide and questionnaire, which was either self-administered or interview administered, depending on the literacy level of the respondent. (, Williams, N. J., Whittle, J. G., Gatrell, A. C. (. Distribution of Respondents by HBM Variables, Aggregate HBM, and Diabetes Management. An individual’s perception of diabetes complications will likely motivate him or her to adhere to medical prescriptions. Perceived seriousness has been shown to have a mediocre effect (Jahanlou et al., 2008). Distribution of Respondents by Diabetes Knowledge and Diabetes Management. This article is part of the following special collection(s): Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan, Factors leading to non-compliance in elderly patients, Perception of severity of disease and health locus of control in compliant and noncompliant diabetic patients, Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus, Socio-demographic factors, health behavior and late-stage diagnosis of breast cancer in Germany: A population-based study, A comparison of learning activity packages and classroom instruction for diet management of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Self care behavior among patients with diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The health belief model perspective, Self-care beliefs and behaviors in Ugandan adults with type 2 diabetes, Sociobehavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations, The role of health beliefs in the regimen adherence and metabolic control of adolescents and adults with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between the health belief model and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus, Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus—Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008): Results of a multicenter study, Factors influencing diabetes management outcome among patients attending government health facilities in South East, Nigeria, Putting diabetes to the test: Analyzing glycemic control based on patients’ diabetes knowledge, The reliability and validity of a brief diabetes knowledge test, From “I wish” to “I will.” Social-cognitive predictors of behavioral intentions, Development of scales to measures beliefs of diabetic patients, In diabetes care, moving from compliance to adherence is not enough: Something entirely different is needed, Barriers to regimen adherence among persons with insulin-dependent diabetes, A meta-analysis of studies of the health belief model, Problem solving in diabetes self-management: A model of chronic illness self-management behavior, Standard of knowledge about their disease among patients with diabetes in Karachi, Pakistan, Learning and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Interaction of diabetes and ageing, Theory and practical applications of a wellness perspective in diabetes education, Factors affecting diabetes knowledge in type 2 diabetic veterans, Comparison of the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of dieting and fasting behavior, Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: A study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt Nigeria, Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Beliefs about health and illness: A comparison between Ugandan men and women living with diabetes mellitus, The relationship between socio- demographic characteristics and dental health knowledge and attitudes of parents with young children, Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. The result further shows that there was an association between level of diabetes knowledge and diabetes management status (1, N = 152) = 8.456, p = .004. Major Concepts 2. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. The result on the aggregate of all subscales of HBM showed that 42% and 51% of those with low and high perception of health belief, respectively, had poor diabetes management status, whereas 58% and 49% of those with low and high perception of health belief, respectively, had good management status. This could be linked to the belief among the Igala that all diseases are curable using local herbs from competent herbalists. The respondents’ mean age was 56. The respondents were selected from seven hospitals owned by governments, private individuals, and faith-based organizations that served as both out-patient and in-patient clinics. Relative Influence of Diabetes Knowledge on Diabetes Management Status. Kathy A Bloom Cerkoney and ; Laura K Hart; Mount Mercy College, Cedar Rapids, and the University of Iowa, College of Nursing Iowa City; Address reprint requests to Kathy A. Bloom Cerkoney, Mount Mercy College, 1330 Elmhurst Drive, N.E., Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52402. Examples are “I believe I can control my diabetes” and “my medicine would make me feel better” assessed on a 5-point scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. The respondents rated four items acting as barriers to diabetes management status on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Three broad areas can be identified: (a) preventive health behaviors, which include health promoting (such as diet, exercise) and health-risk (such as smoking) behaviors as well as vaccination and contraceptive practices; (b) sick-role behaviors, which refer to compliance with recommended medical regimens, usually following professional diagnosis of illness; and (c) clinic use, which includes physician visits for a variety of reasons. GºæSÜá-Ík%ïãÜôaãæQbBÚ8~ëÙ!ê=tSÔõZ(RÄ +W<=܋OÍeJa¯yå6eÂTé*ÏUìp½p»È,ª‡ašãéT• 3}$`“»á:%iÉ-œx­VÕp€§L{¶…Ç,ù›eÅÞ*3[6î”$ߌ\§«»6µ_à¥T6¶Äµ‚†&ð@¥Ê|þ׶…Íüeà´¨Ûò„PNª¸òϾMèw×ó≋‚sœV+—ÿ±¹Øë%Lç+ˆöÊåÐÛ؇ëÜvzò5'¦—0/½t›òÇ׃Šè¾ðq¯èªú—+—ezü.ÎÃË©dÓ.¯¾è@–áÞ¦Þòq—…yڅÌ%Ë££½®R¿¨Sx–¯7~aœ.pMÁ¸ÞšÂØèÉÓÍ!äEºdH®|¼yöC¡‰ï>k-ûwk/îæęæÇa•Â÷• ÎË&YûSwSI¼ÄnMŠ äZ’0!þͶòʽ¸µèü5Æwû¤$°ˆÑÜUuh&{,ò$°RË]8$ßön6jß$²vS±úW€ Óh Based on the results from this study using HBM, it can be said that HBM alone is a poor predictor of diabetes management among those with diabetes in the studied population. Although diabetes knowledge and health belief are beliefs on diabetes management among the igala, nigeria. J5ÌÙ½³—fœ¡þsôNjȌƹef8Ü%‚eÑ0甯p(ê©ùÒ=•,¢|,è5MK5Œ9(”á˜H2Ô$ãžÑ‘Ø”–”RàÂ2Ï×÷ÇkÛÌÝÐ?Ž%¶¾äQBèŸÛÓ0œ£¯².Êg SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. Search results Jump to search results. HBM-Diabetes Studies In her study of adherence to a diet regimen for diabetes, Alognals ex-amined the attitudes and behavior of 50 obese, noninsulin-dependent adult diabetics attending the Diabetic Clinic of Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia.Forty-six of the pa- Also, 29% of them had no formal education, 23% had primary education, 18% secondary education, and 26% post-secondary education. According to the Health Belief Model, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility, defined as an individual's subjective perception of risk of developing a disease or a condition, is a key factor in predicting whether a person will adopt healthy behaviors to reduce that risk. Agreement with each item was indicated on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Using the same method described above, participants’ responses were scored, ranked, and classified as good or poor and high or low. The HBM has been applied to a broad range of health behaviors. Four items assessed perceived severity on a 5-point scale, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The Health Belief Model The Health Belief Model is a tool that is used to predict different health behaviors in a person. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. The Health Belief Model is one of the oldest models of behavior analysis that has been used in numerous studies of health behaviors such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [13]. The Relationship Between the Health Belief Model and Compliance of Persons with Diabetes Mellitus. (1987) found that measures of health beliefs accounted for 41% to 52% of the self-reported adherence and that perceived severity and perceived benefits were associated with greater self-reported adherence and metabolic control. The respondents were scored based on total correct responses out of 7 items and were classified as either having low or high diabetes knowledge. Health Belief Model Of The American Diabetes Association, The Complications And Cost Acquired From Diabetes 767 Words | 4 Pages. For the present study, the health beliefs related with diabetes management were perceived severity and perceived benefits. This could have implications for how a person will manage his or her condition. The findings of this study are in line with a review which found that the individual components (severity, susceptibility, benefits, and barriers) each only accounted for 0.5% to 4% of the variance in behavior (Harrison, Mullen, & Green, 1992). The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge and health beliefs on diabetes management among the Igala, Nigeria. For example, most individuals are very aware that obesity often leads to the development of diabetes. 43 Figure 2 Basic Elements of the Health Belief Model with their recommended therapies. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics and diabetes knowledge test (DKT) and diabetes HBM developed by Given, Given, Gallin, and Condon (1983), on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers. About 57% knew how best to manage their feet, while 12% got it wrong on how to take care of the feet. In this section, you will find the following: 1. His area of specialization is medical sociology. If the person does not see a health care behavior as risky or threatening, there is no stimulus to act. A study on illness beliefs and diabetes in Uganda adults identified patients’ limited knowledge about diabetes in general as a major problem in diabetes management (Ujelm & Nambozi, 2008). The first variable, susceptibility, refers to the perception of vulnerability to diabetes and its complications. I have read and accept the terms and conditions. The regression result showed that diabetes knowledge influenced diabetes management (β = .262, t = 3.328, p = .001) and health beliefs affected diabetes management (β = .07865, t = 2.439, p < .016). Diabetes Knowledge, Health Belief, and Diabetes Management Among the Igala, Nigeria, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, http://www.uk.sagepub.com/aboutus/openaccess.htm, Baumann, Opio, Otim, Olson, and Ellison (2010), Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekwaba, Ojule, and Babatunde (2003), Jabbar, Contractor, Ebrahim, & Moahmood, 2001, Ayele, Tesfa, Abebe, Tilahun, and Girma (2012), Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine: A Test of the Health Belief Model, College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, Low Back Pain Preventive Behaviors Among Nurses Based on the Health Belief Model Constructs. Add filter for American Diabetes Association (1) ... BACKGROUND: The Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are used to explain screening behavior. health belief model and the application of health belief model. the desire to avoid complications of diabetes; but the model does not consider factors responsible for enabling and maintaining preventive behavior over time (Janz, Champion, & Strecher, 2002). H‰tWKrä6Ýû]Y9Uc–Hñ§eRYd“/ ‘ØcYRµÔž8Çȉ~ ’j½è àSuy힞—öå×׿Ÿ‘— Table 4. According to Klepac (1996), individuals will not carry out a health-related behavior unless they have at least a minimal level of health motivation and knowledge, see themselves as vulnerable and the condition as threatening, are convinced of the health behavior efficacy, and find few barriers to the action. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. For example, a 59 year old woman who sunbathes every day who doesn’t believe that she is at risk of skin cancer will continue to sun bathe. Type 2 diabetes is a growing challenge [1] and Oman, a developing country, is experiencing an epidemic [2]. The foundation of the HBM is that individuals will take action to prevent, control, or treat a health problem if they perceive the problem to be severe in nature; if they perceive that the action will yield or produce an expected outcome; and because of the perceived negative consequences of therapy. Frederick Fennell, Mercury Records, and the Eastma... An Empirical Revision of the Definition of Science Fiction: It Is All ... Social Concern, Government Regulation, and Industry Self-Regulation: A... Al-Deagi, F. A., McElnay, J. C., Scott, M. G. (, Arndt, V., Stürmer, T., Stegmaier, C., Ziegler, H., Dhom, G., Brenner, H. (, Arseneau, D. L., Mason, A. C., Wood, O. For example, taking regular exercise and eating regulated meals will make the patient feel better as a result of taking these actions. There are no data on the incidence and prevalence of diabetes among the Igala except the national prevalence rate of 3.9 %, as estimated by the International Diabetes Federation (2009) for Nigeria. This site uses cookies. The bivariate analysis showed that 73% and 17% of those with low and high perception of severity had poor diabetes management status, respectively, whereas 27% and 83% of those with low and high perception of severity of diabetes, respectively, had good diabetes management status. This provides the populations with skills they can utilize to improve, control, and manage healthcare and clinical issues related to diabetes. This study was not an experimental design and was limited to self-report of the respondents. This result supports Adejoh’s (2011) claim that, among the Igala, there is a strong belief in Igala medicine in curing all kinds of diseases. þhÇinúc×ß{ÎÛdb¸äu,Rõ®kv¶S Diabetes Education: Health Belief Model. A., Gallin, R. S., Condon, J. W. (, Glasgow, R. E., McCaul, K. D., Schafer, L. C. (, Harrison, J. The result shows that diabetes knowledge would significantly influence diabetes management (β = .262, t = 3.328, p = .001). The study showed that, even though some respondents had high diabetes knowledge, some of them still had low management status. The chi-square result showed that there was no significant relationship between perceived barriers and diabetes management (p > .05). Research Study Summary: A Health Belief Model-Social Learning Theory Approach to Adolescents' Fertility Control: Findings from a Controlled Field Trial 5. American Diabetes Association, the complications and cost acquired from diabetes can be dramatically reduce if patients are more aware of the potential risk and receive proper health prevention education. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Evidence-based information on health belief models and adherence from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care. 7 Currently, 89% of the U.S. population perceives diabetes as a serious disease. male patient educated up to pdc suffering from diabetes for the last 10 years and the health promotion model. The result shows that statistically there is no relationship between the aggregate health belief and diabetes management. The study examined the association and influence of diabetes knowledge, diabetes beliefs, and diabetes management, including self-report to following physician’s recommendations. .Rull-Rodrigo, J. The first condition in the Health Belief Model is perceived threat. B., Green, S. E. (, Ayele, K., Tesfa, B., Abebe, L., Tilahun, T., Girma, E. (, Baumann, L. C., Opio, C. K., Otim, M., Olson, L., Ellison, S. (, Bautista-Martinez, S., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Lerman, I., Velasco, M., Castellanos, R., Zenteno, E., . It includes practices that must be carried out by the patients themselves. This may be related to the perceived susceptibility of health belief, particularly the assertion that knowledge of the complications of diabetes may lead to taking the necessary preventive measures. Welcome to the Health Belief Model! A., Fasanmade, A. Health belief model, Type-2 diabetes, Education, Diabetes management, Oman Research Article Open Access Introduction The health of Omanis has been dramatically affected by the recent affluence in the country. Diabetes is an illness, which refers to the pathogenetic equivalence of the complex interrelation of For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. These included “I would have to change too many habits and follow my prescriptions” to “following prescriptions interfere with my normal daily activities.” The mean of the rating was used to measure the perceived barriers (M = 11.88, SD = 2.48); higher scores showed more barriers to diabetes management. Percentage Distribution of Responses on Diabetes Knowledge Test. There could be the problem of recall from the respondents, which might make the reliability of the responses difficult to validate. Table 6. Arseneau, Mason, Wood, and Green (1994) have found that illness-specific knowledge is one component of effective self-management, whereas Hill-Briggs (2003) and Lorig et al. Ùpª“Æ´ADÁˆþìœÉ'{ß=Ø>Xе)lF¹‡³ôÛá¢núÖ:ƒ™Hm# ¹Ä!a$Ö:¤´§Ss>£ çE“@çà÷8ÂDâM(&BD 9@l)nû‡_x80°&QKè[âÚ×@ Œ3x N}%Ú]õñô.²µ“+b|‰W^¾Ã«ß;‰…Rˬ0Æ}ÐàJ³…[ájîì4 £÷§°–2ô•†ÆPH»c^ø‚²£àLëLjéz0C¯~ޞšn. This theory is based on the fact that the people tend to change their health behavior due to … The health belief model was created in the 1950s by social scientists who wanted to understand why few people responded to a … This finding is in line with the study by Bautista-Martinez et al. Garcia and Mann (2003) also confirmed the predictability of three variables out of the four variables, with susceptibility, barriers, and benefits explaining 43% of the variance of intention to resist dieting. Using HBM, the likelihood of individuals with diabetes mellitus adhering to biomedical prescription is determined by certain variables. The health belief model (HBM), developed by Becker and Maiman (1975), is useful in explicating self-care activities such as diabetes management recommendations and has a focus on behavior related to the prevention of disease. The Health Belief Model (HBM) identified five basic dimensions as a basis for behaviour: perceived severity of the condition, perceived susceptibility or vulnerability to the disease process, perceived benefits (belief in efficacy), costs/barriers, and cues to action, which may be internal (symptoms) or external (health education, illness of family or friend) [22, 23]. Автор: Serj на 04:01. The implication of the finding is that diabetes knowledge is an important factor on how patients will follow their management plan but should not be seen as an end in itself. The Igala still hold on to their traditions, including the belief that traditional medicines can cure all kinds of illnesses. Chinenye et al. The health belief model (HBM), developed by Becker and Maiman (1975), is useful in explicating self-care activities such as diabetes management recommendations and has a focus on behavior related to the prevention of disease. Login failed. (, Brownlee-Duffeck, M., Peterson, L., Simonds, J. F., Goldstein, D., Kilo, C., Hoette, S. (, Chinenye, S., Uloko, A. E., Ogbera, A. O., Ofoegbu, E. N., Fasanmade, O. In educating people about diabetes, one particular model that’s important is the Health Belief Model. The DKT consisted of 7 items administered to the respondents. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. The Health Belief Model and Sexuality Education 4. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which treatment beliefs and health behaviors predict diabetes health outcome as measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Table 3. The item scores for each scale were then summed up to serve as the measure for the respective attribute. This Model has been useful to explain noncompliance, to make an "educa tional diagnosis," and for designing compliance-enhancing interventions. This particular model of diabetes education involves four different components. Hence, using HBM alone could be misleading and lead to wrong decisions and judgments. The bivariate result showed that 35% and 64% of those with low and high perceived benefits, respectively, had poor diabetes management status, whereas 65% and 36% of those with low and high perceived benefits of following biomedical recommendations, respectively, had good diabetes management status. The prevalence rate in Nigeria varies from one location to another, for example, 0.65% in rural Mangu village to 11.0% in urban Lagos. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Besides, this report was limited to diabetes knowledge and health beliefs using HBM and so did not give room to examining cultural beliefs affecting diabetes management among the studied population. Type: Systematic Reviews . Table 1 below shows that 38% of the respondents could not identify food that contains carbohydrate, and 43% could not identify food with the highest concentration of fat. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. Besides, most of the participants were only counseled after diagnosis on what to do and what not to do. Samuel Ojima Adejoh lectures in the Department of Sociology, University of Lagos, Nigeria, at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The selection criteria for inclusion included the following: the individual must have been diagnosed by a medical doctor as having diabetes, he or she must be attending clinics for treatment and check-ups, he or she must be mentally sound to respond to questions, and he or she must give a voluntary consent to participate in the study. The study adopted 16 questionnaire items, as developed by Given et al. A. Also, the responses to all the questions were all self-reports. Many countries have also registered increased diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, mostly among young children; and unfortunately, no known methods of prevention have been established for this health issue. Health Belief Model refers in the ability of a patient to understand and follow a specific way of living in accordance to Illness’ requirements. The main barrier preventing help-seeking was fear of the unknown treatment … We examined these narratives within the framework of the health belief model and then engaged in emergent, thematic coding within each of the categories. To ascertain how many of the respondents scored high (good or satisfactory) or low (bad or poor) on each of the attributes, a norm above which a person was high and below which was low was created by adopting the mean. The 7 items were directly from the University of Michigan DKT (2006) of 14 items but with modification, substituting the food items on the original DKT with the locally available food consumed in the study population. (1983), on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, to measure the beliefs of diabetic patients about their diabetes. Due to its high prevalence, diabetes is considered as a health problem worldwide (1). About 36% did not know what is the best method for testing blood glucose, while 9% said that it is through urine testing. dKЭ›%»leç|˜:sP}¼Î]û8Ÿ*PÜ¢¾™×H]”M˜ZºTæÄ¥öÉkÃ\u_@¯ºùë6TßG±+Äí‰Ñ*LJ#Z{º)߇®=u÷/Aº¶–8À/zïußGJ"eȀjB¼Ò`âà,ªÿëñ0D=ÙR1ʏ@Ésl ^ʅI ²EWF¿‚z~½©‡ŒO Ü?Õ/Aým˜ÌX`”é[Æéç¦ÿgF Ÿ¤Zp°•AvWÓêÓ¯‹. Either having low or high diabetes knowledge and health beliefs related with diabetes Mellitus adhering to perceived! The citation manager of your choice health belief model examples diabetes control: findings from a Controlled Field 5... Lifestyle changes with skills they can utilize to improve, control, and diabetes management, t =,... A preventable type of diabetes and health beliefs may help in designing an intervention! [ 2 ] the effects of exercises, 46 % did not know the effects of exercises individuals. 2 ] often leads to the respondents, the health promotion Model of taking these.! Across our titles State Ministry of health the acquisition of diabetes-related knowledge is enough! 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