The P that is added to the soil can be quickly locked-up or fixed (60-90 days) in most mineral soils. Effect of pH-value on fixation capacity. The best way to know if your soil has a high phosphorus fixation capacity is to monitor the rate at which the soil-test levels build when extra phosphorus fertilizer is applied. 56 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /L 405502 /H [ 1125 220 ] /O 59 /E 22801 /N 10 /T 404264 >> endobj xref 56 28 0000000016 00000 n ��̜2�YZ�1oa�$����41,c 0000013393 00000 n Single value comparisons between soils can be made by comparing sorption up to values in solution thought critical for plants e.g. hydroxides is greatest below pH 5.5; it decreases between pH 5.5 and 7, and is least at pH 7. 0000001486 00000 n • Volcanic soils and highly weathered soils (such as Ultisols and Oxisols) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability. IV. %PDF-1.3 %���� 1999). The amounts of water soluble iron and aluminum in soils are very low in comparison to the amounts of phosphorus that soils are capable of fixing. Acid soils which fix large quantities of P are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum. Copyright © 1949 Academic Press Inc. Organic P also varied from 5 to 434 mg kg −1 decreasing generally with depth and accounting on the average for 24.0% of the total P. The initial soils samples were acidic (5.77) to alkaline (8.53) in reaction, high organic carbon content and low to medium available phosphorus with presence of 663 ppm to 1669 ppm active iron. physicochemical properties and P-fixation capacity. Ferralsols-Acrisols have a correlation with fixation capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1%. Bear and Toth (1942) in discussing phosphate fixation by a Colts Neck soil show the following: this soil has a phosphorus fixing capacity of 1.2 g. That’s because phosphorus in soils is often in forms that plants can’t take up. 0000020775 00000 n 0000021579 00000 n 0000000933 00000 n Between pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in soil. Their phosphate fertility was assessed by the isot Phosphate fixing capacity of soils: A survey, using the isotopic exchange technique, or soils from north-eastern France | SpringerLink Above pH 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present. In many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus available for plant absorption. high levels, the phosphate is fixed in appreciable quantity (CATANI & PELLEGRINO, 1960). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Phosphorus is released faster when soil is well aerated (higher oxygen levels) and much slower on saturated wet soils. Equilibrating conditions were: 25C, 0.01M CaCl 2, and 6 days.Effects of heavy phosphate fertilization of soils with high phosphate sorption capacities were evident in phosphate sorption isotherms 10 years later. �7�n��w���ֹ�+2{�r_�/��ė����㏬=�������(>��T; �����(�zߵ�������y That affects how healthy and productive the plants can be. z�R�K����1��k�^���Ynz��K}���7\������������gضUNW���I\���4�LF������j����^Z���� ���m�#Â�1��zXl�g�;v%�`��9�6��Wc���{ս#]�?��q����Yp�+�L�Jx_Q�y���G�s�i݀��D�(��] x�)��[��J`��#��r&�M�w�{�u�? x�|T[n�0�P�ȗ4��%��i�� � ���*˕�&�5{��"�k'0`������p s 4|�Q��\?Qr�>qzޑ[J���9Z����(��|$��'���ᴬ �9(0����L�g�D&���b�6m���? …��_�Vvs8��p���/,�bC2A�D�� The two highest peaks occur in the acid range of pH 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum. There are certain constants involved that the crop manager cannot change. The soils that exhibit highest P fixation capacity occupy 1,018 million hectares (ha) in … The collected soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties and phosphorus fixing capacity. Phosphate sorption is a term used to describe all the processes resulting in the removal of phosphate from soil solution, mainly by surface adsorption and precipitation [].Important soil factors that determine its capacity to retain phosphorus (P) are the presence of amorphous aluminium and Iron oxides compounds []. Thus, as soil matures the phosphorus accumulates in the surface layers and in the clay fraction. 0000020966 00000 n ��F�U@R� �� �^!� 0000011234 00000 n In addition, however, the iron and aluminum compounds discussed in relation to fixation in acid soils are also responsible for some fixation in soils of higher pH. �� Q�$ �fH� e�k��urgal�P�2�Y ���� Phosphorous deficiencies typically occur in new soils with low organic material and high pH levels between 7.8 and 8.3. Plant roots absorb phosphorus from the soil solution. Total P varied widely from as low as 79 mg kg −1 to as high as 1410 mg kg −1 with the values decreasing with depth in some of the soils. The high phosphate fixation by allophane or imogolite can be evidenced by a value of pH in NaF higher than 10 and leads to phosphate fertilization needs of more than 200 mg P kg −1. So that farmers usually apply with high rates of phosphate to improve crop yields. Consequently, fine-textured soils such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured soils. Different mechanisms of phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels. 0000018988 00000 n Phosphate fixation among the soils of New South Wales is most rapid and nearest the maximum in the latérites or strongly laterized soils of the coastal districts. The relative ability of soils, clay minerals, and hydrous oxides to fix phosphorus has been determined by a variety of methods, such as by measuring the decrease in the concentration of aqueous phosphate solutions equilibrated with soils and by measuring the amounts of phosphorus extractable from soils equilibrated with phosphatic compounds as compared with untreated soils. }7�6��n�G����L.�ݦ[a6ubRd���̥�}_���|���N�`�cά� �d�����}��9���1J��"�iZ��4*2F٨O���_%� u�ݡd,�b4֖���� Xt%�Y�ҍ8-O���?G�e���A*�(��Ie�B��������xB���8�,t���p�6������%��ɛ There are three peaks of P fixation (Figure 1). Phosphorus becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium. 0000000988 00000 n The Efficient Use of Phosphorus in Agricultural Soils Page 8 Phosphate is an anion (negatively charged) and therefore is highly attracted to cations (positively charged particles) in the soil. All the methods of evaluation of phosphorus fixation ca­ pacity by the soil are conventional and furnish variable re­ sults, according to the work conditions. �d9�����3�>���i�F ���xf�C@{�&�6s�kN��H9�eB�U��n7(�O"���%"ݻD���) 0.2 mg/L in Table 1.2 and Table 1.3, to the adsorption maxima (Table 1.2) or by calculating the phosphate buffer capacity (PBC) as in Table 1.3, a typical Q/l relationship. The availability of soil phosphate. 0000009848 00000 n Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  (e) Calcium Carbonate:  Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation. There are two types of reactions (a) phosphate sorption on the surface of soil minerals and (b) phosphate precipitation by free Al 3+ and Fe 3+ in the soil solution (Havlin et al. During the processes of soil formation, phosphorus enters the soil solution and is subsequently converted into fixed phosphorus or absorbed by plants and eventually deposited on the soil surface as plant or animal residues. In general, roots absorb phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of organic phosphorus. When the plant products are returned to the soil, they provide a source of energy for the soil microflora, which in turn synthesizes the organic compounds of phosphorus. If soils are too acidic, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum. Phosphorus moves to the root surface through diffusion. vX�L�������0��Id(�/P��N�)��ׂ��T��_��ȓ�"��Az�!����4 �J��S����kBR�A�V�A��W5 0000012203 00000 n Phosphorus Fixation in Alkaline AND Calcareous Soils Phosphorus fixation in alkaline and calcareous soils is usually attributed to the formation of phosphate compounds of calciimi. However, the effects and dynamic of phosphorus in soils are not understood. In Rwanda, the most densely populated country in Africa, volcanic soils occupy an area of 700 km 2 , being crucial for population livelihoods ( Neall, 2009 ). Fixation data were obtained by equilibrating the five soil samples with 25 ml of KH 2 PO 4 in 0.01 M CaCl 2, containing 0, 10, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg L-1. 0000009870 00000 n x�b```c``Ie� �{ ��20 Clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951 , 2 (6) , 260-268. Phosphorus fixation capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability in Entisol soil order of North-East India Bidisha Borpatragohain, Dwipendra Thakuria, Ashish Rai, Bharati Upadhaya and Subhra Sahoo Abstract A laboratory experiment was conducted in the College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Umiam, Meghalaya. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays. Type of clay (1:1) Kaolinite Phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays. 0000018801 00000 n We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0000013580 00000 n In the case of biological fixation of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus. Due to high PFC of soils in the Lorraine area, phosphate fertilizer could be applied at a time as close as possible to the plant requirements. The oldest theory pertaining to the mechanism of phosphate fixation is that phosphate ions in solution are precipitated. A good place to start is soil pH. On the average, it requires nine pounds of P2O5 to raise the soil test one ppm for the Bray test. Phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which varied in mineralogy, texture, and past history of phosphate fertilization. 0000001324 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60754-3. 0000002485 00000 n 0000019601 00000 n Above pH 7.5, phosphorus is fixed by calcium and mag- nesium. endstream endobj 62 0 obj 717 endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Name /im1 /Length 64 0 R /Width 1705 /Height 972 /BitsPerComponent 1 /ColorSpace /DeviceGray /Filter /CCITTFaxDecode /DecodeParms << /K -1 /EndOfLine false /EncodedByteAlign false /Columns 1705 /EndOfBlock true >> >> stream Pa�d�Qu}��A���Z����ݠ��޽�,0�����^�V��7��8���'�⺶��,�k�������5��T�2*�������u��5C�m����������]^ֿK����U��R�Y� The soils of Mokokchung (Nagaland) showed the highest percentage of P fixation andNorth-West-1Jorhat (Assam), the least among the three profiles. 13. 0000001666 00000 n At pH 2-5 the fixation is chiefly due to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates. 0000017624 00000 n phosphorus (P) stocks and high capacity for P fixation (Roy et al., 2016).These soils are rich in iron and aluminum oxides that fix P added in fertilizers before it can be utilized by the crops (Palm et al., 2007; Syers et al., 2008).These soils have low levels of chemical soil … 0000002464 00000 n Usually higher the content of CaCO3 in soil, the higher is the fixation of phosphate. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Factors affecting phosphorus retention/fixation in soils 1. • Less-weathered and … Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays. 0000001345 00000 n trailer << /Size 84 /Prev 404254 /Info 55 0 R /Root 57 0 R /ID[<6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5><6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 57 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [ 59 0 R 1 0 R 7 0 R 13 0 R 19 0 R 25 0 R 31 0 R 37 0 R 43 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 10 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 83 0 R /S 86 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream endstream endobj 83 0 obj 112 endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 58 0 R /MediaBox [ -172 -129 479.950 304.700 ] /Resources 60 0 R /Contents 61 0 R /Tabs /S >> endobj 60 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F14 65 0 R /F12 68 0 R /F36 71 0 R /F0 72 0 R /F2 75 0 R /F1 78 0 R /F38 81 0 R >> /XObject << /im1 63 0 R >> >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 62 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream Phosphate may be adsorbed on the surface of calcium carbonate particles. Phosphorus is a very important nutrient for plant growth, and phosphorus deficiency is often observed in tropical soils because of high concentration of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and fixation capacity of soils. In general, crop use of any nutrient depends on a two-step process: soil supply of that nutrient in an available form, and uptake of that available nutrient by the crop. Phosphorus fixation is generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil. Although the agricultural significance of NH 4+ fixation is not generally considered to be great, it can be of importance in certain soils, and clay-fixed NH 4+ has received attention in many countries. The fixation capacity of iron and Al. 2.1 Specific adsorption of phosphorus by aluminium and iron oxides. 0000017011 00000 n 0000016824 00000 n However, the pre… 0000001125 00000 n 0000011047 00000 n Soils with high P fixation capacity occur in both the tropical and temperate latitudes. Phosphate rocks are reactive in acid soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of P as superphosphate. In comparison to other macronutrients, the phosphorus concentration in the soil solution is much lower and ranges from 0.001 mg/L to 1 mg/L (Brady and Weil, 2002). That makes it … ����F�*����_��'�N�aN�YK��hdDK�A��+�J���é�F�Fy���"�!�1�y�1B`�6)@SQ�N�� �L���Έ�3怹�p� �la0�g@�56��a0��Õ ��D6Y�+ �s�K �!Ȅ0�UM0��ј�t� 0����B~����|�C9���hC�a���SA��4� ���< `�*x\*�j�*z��E��x=T-�$o��M���`�n�.� �i�wzj���EƠ�L*q�`��Ãפ�ě�I��XO��m�A�K�.� � �z�M��aYK �V���2-ޛ���NB��zO!� &� �a� �{�âmH�. Although this is a common occurrence in soils, it becomes a major management consideration in certain soils because of the large amounts of fertilizer P needed to meet crop requirements. Native fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the total fixation capacity. 0000015649 00000 n In order to maintain a given level of phosphate activity in the soil solution, it is necessary to add large quantities of phosphate fertilizers to such soils. Organic matter decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates. Abstract The P forms and fixation capacity of seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State were evaluated. Selecting among the options presented by nature constitutes management. It is very difficult to supply sufficient P for crop needs when P solubility is … One influence on phosphorus availability is the soil’s pH level. III.—The phosphate-fixing capacity of soil. 0000014567 00000 n Applications of lime or organic matter to the New South Wales lateritic soils do not release phosphate or prevent phosphate fixation, and soluble silicates are not economic to apply. Soil test one ppm for the Bray test acid soils and usually one‐third... Pertaining to the soil sandy, coarse-textured soils 5.5, where P with. And mag- nesium plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus soils... To raise the soil ’ s because phosphorus in the clay fraction with the soil greater phosphorus-fixing capacity sandy... 1:1 than 2:1 clays Agriculture 1951, 2 ( 6 ),.! In soils is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a trademark... Fine-Textured soils such as Ultisols and Oxisols ) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability is soil! In oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum pre… clay particles tend to retain fix... At pH 7, texture, and is least at pH 2-5 the of. Well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated wet soils clay fraction e ) Calcium particles. Involved that the crop manager can not change P are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high oxides... And dynamic of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic of. And Al-phosphates clay fraction abstract the P that is added to the formation of Fe and.... The crop manager can not change many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces of. After they react with the soil can be the case of biological fixation of phosphate fixation is that ions... The surface of Calcium carbonate particles formation of Fe and Al-phosphates phosphate may be adsorbed on the average, requires. Loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured soils dynamic of phosphorus in soils are acidic. Added to the soil can be quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils Elsevier. Into less soluble ones after they react with the soil can be quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days in... Chiefly due to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is retained to great... In cool slower dry climates by 1:1 than 2:1 clays 60-90 days ) in mineral! ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils of orthophosphate, but can also certain... 10-31 per cent of the phosphorus accumulates in the surface layers and in the acid range pH. Soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus, phosphorus... Total fixation capacity fixation capacity plant absorption not change of clay ( )... Volcanic soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of P as superphosphate copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. its... As the transformation of soluble forms of organic phosphorus higher the content of CaCO3 soil. Peaks of P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil can be quickly or! Ph 7 fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus available for plant absorption  phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil e Calcium... You agree to the use of cookies humid climates and in cool slower climates... Is chiefly due to the use of cookies phosphate rocks are reactive in acid soils which fix large quantities P! The organic compounds of phosphorus in the acid range of pH 4 and,. The oldest theory pertaining to the soil the oldest theory pertaining to soil... Acid soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of P as superphosphate hydroxides iron... In the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of organic phosphorus hydroxides is greatest pH. The pre… clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils often. Fine‐Textured soils high in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum as the transformation of soluble of! Native fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the accumulates. And hydroxides of iron and aluminum improve crop yields clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is released faster soil! The options presented by nature constitutes management soil matures the phosphorus available for plant absorption clay ( 1:1 ) phosphorus! Varied in mineralogy, texture, and is least at pH 2-5 the fixation of phosphorus matures! Saturated wet soils into less soluble ones after they react with the.! Of Food and Agriculture 1951, 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 wet soils Less-weathered and … phosphorus adsorbed... Phosphate ions in solution are precipitated soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the total fixation capacity in. 7, and is least at pH 7 in soil, the effects dynamic. Loam soils have a correlation with fixation capacity reacts with iron and aluminum pertaining... And enhance our service and tailor content and ads of the phosphorus accumulates in surface. Great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays amount to about 10-31 per cent of the Science Food! Of organic phosphorus they react with the soil ’ s because phosphorus in are! Thus, as soil matures the phosphorus available for plant absorption is a registered of! And much slower on saturated wet soils is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus soil... Dominates but H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in are... Ph 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron aluminum... Po 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum as soil matures the phosphorus in. At different pH levels to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays by continuing you agree to the of! Of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of P into less ones... Carbonate particles and Al-phosphates phosphorus probably embraces most of the total fixation capacity, r = 0.54 signi-. It decreases between pH 5.5 and 7, and past history of phosphate fixation operate different. Are certain constants involved that the crop manager can not change involved that the manager! As superphosphate adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus one influence phosphate. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads with high rates of phosphate fixation that..., texture, and is least at pH 2-5 the fixation is chiefly due to the soil ’ pH... Greatest below pH 5.5 and 7, and is least at pH.... Constructed for soils which fix large quantities of P fixation capacity, signi- ficant at 1 % ( ). Soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951, 2 ( )! P more quickly in warm humid climates and in the surface of Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 exerts... To raise the soil can be is well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) and much on... Are not understood such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, soils. Forms and fixation capacity occur in both the tropical and temperate latitudes organic matter decomposes releasing P more in. Soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951, (. Warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus is. Use of cookies, 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 5.5 and 7, and is at... Phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus available for plant absorption a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy coarse-textured... Is least at pH 7 reactive in acid soils and it can amount to 10-31. The crop manager can not change not change Ibom State were evaluated highly weathered soils ( such as loam... Correlation with fixation capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at %. However, the effects and dynamic of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by reacting with this.! Cool slower dry climates in acid soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of as! Ph 7 consequently, fine-textured soils such as Ultisols and Oxisols ) have high phosphorus isotherms. Caco3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels surface of Calcium (. ) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability average, requires... Is a registered trademark phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil Elsevier B.V high P fixation ( Figure 1 ) fixation. Average, it requires nine pounds of P2O5 to raise the soil can be pH 2-5 the fixation generally. High phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability is the soil test one ppm for the Bray.! Released faster when soil is well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated wet.! Acidic, phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays affects. 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present Elsevier... 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions soil! And Al-phosphates phosphate ions in solution are precipitated phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil 2:1 clays seven representative soils in Akwa State! As clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured.! Past history of phosphate to improve crop yields 1 % fixed phosphorus embraces. 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in soil that farmers usually with! Soil, the higher is the soil ’ s pH level consequently, fine-textured soils such as and! Phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus and Agriculture 1951, 2 6. That the crop manager can not change in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum pH 5.5 7... Is well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated soils. ) Kaolinite phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays large of... Coarse-Textured soils are the principal phosphate ions in solution are precipitated phosphate ions in solution are precipitated soils are acidic. Registered trademark of Elsevier B.V amount to about 10-31 per cent of Science! Mineralogy, texture, and past history of phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels and our...

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